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Archive for October, 2014

Generate ALTER Statements for Database Moves

October 13, 2014 1 comment

Last week, I posted Identifying Corrupt Rows USING DBCC CHECKDB and DBCC PAGE. I wrote the scripts in that post to identify corrupt rows in a client’s database. As we continued to investigate, things got strange. Repeated runs of DBCC CHECKDB were generating different results. Each one showed serious corruption, but on different pages with each run. In an effort to remove the storage system from the list of potential causes, I needed to move to data and log files for the database to a a different storage array. This post from TechNet gave me the steps I needed to run.

In this case, only one database had to be moved. To move more than one database, I wrote the following script to generate the statements specified in the TechNet article. In addition to the ALTER DATABASE statements, the script checks to see if the database is part of an availability group. If it is, a statement is generated to remove it. As adding a database to an availability group is far more complicated than removing it, I will leave that to the user.

As usual, I hope you find this useful. And remember, executing code you find on the internet against your production instance always has the potential to become a resume updating event. Use caution and test.

/*---------------------------------------------------------------
Created By - Frank Gill
Created On - 2014-10-13
 
Script to generate ALTER DATABASE statement to move a database to
a different storage location
---------------------------------------------------------------*/

USE master;

SET NOCOUNT ON;

/* Drop temp table if it exists */

IF OBJECT_ID('tempdb..#dbfiles') IS NOT NULL
BEGIN

	DROP TABLE #dbfiles;

END

/* Declare local variables and create temp table */
DECLARE @dbname SYSNAME;
DECLARE @agname SYSNAME;
DECLARE @sqlstr NVARCHAR(4000);
DECLARE @physicalname NVARCHAR(260);
DECLARE @logicalname SYSNAME;
DECLARE @filetype TINYINT;
DECLARE @datapath NVARCHAR(1000);
DECLARE @logpath NVARCHAR(1000);
DECLARE @agdb BIT = 0;
DECLARE @loopcount INT = 1;
DECLARE @looplimit INT;

CREATE TABLE #dbfiles
(logicalname SYSNAME
,physicalname NVARCHAR(260)
,filetype TINYINT)

/* Initialize variables */
SET @dbname = 'Your_Database';
SET @datapath = 'Your_Data_Path';
SET @logpath = 'Your_Log_Path';

/* If the database is part of an availability group, generate a statement to remove it prior to taking the database offline */
IF(SELECT replica_ID FROM sys.databases WHERE name = @dbname) IS NOT NULL
BEGIN

	PRINT '/* This database is part of an availability group and must be removed prior to taking the database offline
   You will need to add the database back to the availability group after the database files are moved */'

	SELECT @agname = g.name FROM sys.databases d
	INNER JOIN sys.availability_replicas r
	ON d.replica_id = r.replica_id
	INNER JOIN sys.availability_groups g
	ON g.group_id = r.group_id
	WHERE d.name = @dbname;

	SET @sqlstr = 'ALTER AVAILABILITY GROUP [' + @agname + ']
REMOVE DATABASE [' + @dbname + '];';

	PRINT @sqlstr;
	
	SET @agdb = 1;

END

/* Generate a statement to set the database offline */
SET @sqlstr = 'ALTER DATABASE ' + @dbname + '
SET OFFLINE WITH ROLLBACK IMMEDIATE';

PRINT @sqlstr;

/* Get a list of database files for your database and insert them into the temp table for use in the loop */
SET @sqlstr = 'INSERT INTO #dbfiles
SELECT name, physical_name, type FROM ' + @dbname + '.sys.database_files;'

EXEC sp_executesql @sqlstr;

/* Set the loop limit to the number of files returned from the insert statement */
SET @looplimit = @@ROWCOUNT;

WHILE @loopcount <= @looplimit
BEGIN

	/* Get the first set of physical and logical file name and generate an ALTER DATABASE statement using the file type to determine the new physical location */

	SELECT TOP 1 @logicalname = logicalname, @physicalname =  REVERSE(SUBSTRING(REVERSE(physicalname),1,(CHARINDEX('\',REVERSE(physicalname))-1))), @filetype = filetype FROM #dbfiles;

	IF @filetype = 0
	BEGIN

 SET @sqlstr = 'ALTER DATABASE ' + @dbname + '
MODIFY FILE 
(NAME = ' + @logicalname + ' 
,FILENAME = ''' + @datapath + @physicalname + '''' + ');';
 
 END
 ELSE IF @filetype = 1
 BEGIN

 SET @sqlstr = 'ALTER DATABASE ' + @dbname + '
MODIFY FILE 
(NAME = ' + @logicalname + ' 
,FILENAME = ''' + @logpath + @physicalname + '''' + ');';
 END

	PRINT @sqlstr;

	SET @loopcount += 1;

	DELETE TOP (1) FROM #dbfiles 

END

/* Generate a statement to bring the database back online */
SET @sqlstr = 'ALTER DATABASE ' + @dbname + '
SET ONLINE';

PRINT @sqlstr;


IF @agdb = 1
BEGIN

	PRINT '/* Reminder!  ' + @dbname + 'is part of an availability group 
You will need to add the database back to the availability group if necessary */'

END

Identifying Corrupt Rows Using DBCC CHECKDB and DBCC PAGE

October 6, 2014 1 comment

Four months ago, when I blogged about giving all the presentations, things were starting to ramp up pat my new job. I’ve really enjoyed the last few months, but the combination of my presenting schedule and the responsibilities of the new gig has left little time for blogging.

This week, I ran into a corruption issue that gave me a chance to make a deeper dive into internals than I have in a while. It also gave me the opportunity to develop a script to dump the results of DBCC PAGE to a table.

This week, we discovered corruption in a client’s database we were migrating. Digging deeper into the results of DBCC CHECKDB, I found that six objects in the database were corrupted badly enough to require data loss. One of those objects contained 47 irreparable pages.

In an effort to provide the client as much information as possible about the corrupted data, I set out to identify the rows contained on the corrupt pages. Here are the scripts I used.

First, I needed to create tables to hold the results of DBCC CHECKDB and DBCC PAGE. For the PageResults table, I guessed at the column definitions. For DBCCResults, I made all of the numeric columns BIGINT to prevent conversion errors.

USE [Your_Database]
GO

/* Create table to hold the results of DBCC CHECKDB */

/****** Object:  Table [dbo].[DBCCResults]    Script Date: 9/30/2014 11:00:47 AM ******/
SET ANSI_NULLS ON
GO

SET QUOTED_IDENTIFIER ON
GO

SET ANSI_PADDING ON
GO

IF OBJECT_ID('Your_Database..DBCCResults') IS NOT NULL
BEGIN

	DROP TABLE DBCCResults;

END

IF OBJECT_ID('Your_Database..PageResults') IS NOT NULL
BEGIN

	DROP TABLE PageResults;

END

CREATE TABLE PageResults
(ParentObject VARCHAR(100)
,[Object] VARCHAR(1000)
,[Field] VARCHAR(100)
,[VALUE] VARCHAR(1000))

CREATE TABLE [dbo].[DBCCResults](
	[Error] [bigint] NULL,
	[Level] [bigint] NULL,
	[State] [bigint] NULL,
	[MessageText] [varchar](7000) NULL,
	[RepairLevel] [varchar](7000) NULL,
	[Status] [bigint] NULL,
	[DbId] [bigint] NULL,
	[DbFragID] [bigint] NULL,
	[ObjId] [bigint] NULL,
	[IndId] [bigint] NULL,
	[PartID] [bigint] NULL,
	[AllocID] [bigint] NULL,
	[RidDbid] [bigint] NULL,
	[RidPruid] [bigint] NULL,
	[File] [bigint] NULL,
	[Page] [bigint] NULL,
	[Slot] [bigint] NULL,
	[RefDbid] [bigint] NULL,
	[RefPruId] [bigint] NULL,
	[RefFile] [bigint] NULL,
	[RefPage] [bigint] NULL,
	[RefSlot] [bigint] NULL,
	[Allocation] [bigint] NULL
) ON [PRIMARY]

GO

After creating the tables, I needed to generate DBCC CHECKDB statements for each database. The script below uses sys.databases as the driver, and you can modify the results with an appropriate WHERE clause. The script is set to print the DBCC CHECKDB commands. Replacing the PRINT statement with EXEC sp_executesql will execute the statement after generation. Upon execution, the results of DBCC CHECKDB will be inserted into the DBCC CHECKDB table.

USE master;
GO

/* Drop temp table if it exists */

IF OBJECT_ID('tempdb..#databases') IS NOT NULL
BEGIN

	DROP TABLE #databases

END

/* Declare local variables and create temp tables */
DECLARE @sqlstr NVARCHAR(2000);
DECLARE @dbname SYSNAME;
DECLARE @loopcount TINYINT = 1;
DECLARE @looplimit TINYINT;

CREATE TABLE #databases
(dbname SYSNAME);

/* This will generate statements for all user databases 
   Change the WHERE clause to limit or expand the results */
INSERT INTO #databases
SELECT name FROM master.sys.databases
WHERE name > 4;

/* Get the loop limit */
SELECT @looplimit = @@ROWCOUNT;

/* Build the DBCC CHECKDB statement for each database 
   This code will print each statement
   Replace the PRINT statement with EXEC sp_executesql @sql str to execute the code */
WHILE @loopcount <= @looplimit
BEGIN

	SELECT TOP 1 @dbname = dbname FROM #databases;

	SELECT @sqlstr = 'INSERT INTO Your_Database..DBCCResults EXEC(''DBCC CHECKDB(' + @dbname + ') WITH TABLERESULTS, NO_INFOMSGS'')';

	PRINT @sqlstr;

	SELECT @loopcount += 1;

	DELETE FROM #databases WHERE dbname = @dbname;

END


Once, the DBCCResults table was populated, I needed to dump the contents of the irreparable pages. For corrupted pages, DBCC CHECKDB returns two possible RepairLevels — repair_rebuild indicates the page can be rebuilt to fix the corruption; repair_allow_data_loss means that the page is corrupted so badly it cannot be repaired. The only option is to delete the page and restore consistency to the object structure. This link from Paul Randal provides a much more detailed explanation.

USE Your_Database;

/* Drop temp tables if they exist */
SET NOCOUNT ON;

IF OBJECT_ID('tempdb..#DBCCPages') IS NOT NULL
BEGIN
	
	DROP TABLE #DBCCPages;

END

IF OBJECT_ID('tempdb..#PageResults') IS NOT NULL
BEGIN
	
	DROP TABLE #PageResults;

END

/* Create temp tables */
CREATE TABLE #PageResults
(ParentObject VARCHAR(100)
,[Object] VARCHAR(1000)
,[Field] VARCHAR(100)
,[VALUE] VARCHAR(1000))

/* Declare local variables */
DECLARE @loopcount INT = 1;
DECLARE @looplimit INT;
DECLARE @sqlstr NVARCHAR(4000);
DECLARE @pagenum BIGINT;

/* Select information about the corrupt data
   This example selects rows with a RepairLevel of repair_allow_data_loss for a single object */
SELECT DISTINCT O.name, T.RepairLevel, T.IndId, T.PartID, T.Page 
INTO #DBCCPages 
FROM DBCCResults T
INNER JOIN Your_Database.sys.objects O
ON t.ObjId = O.object_id
WHERE RepairLevel = 'repair_allow_data_loss'
AND O.name = 'Your_Table'
ORDER BY O.name, T.Page;

/* Set the loop limit */
SET @looplimit = @@ROWCOUNT;

/* Build a DBCC PAGE statement for each corrupt page and execute it
   Insert the results into the #PageResults temp table */
WHILE @loopcount <= @looplimit
BEGIN

	SELECT TOP 1 @pagenum = Page FROM #DBCCPages

	SET @sqlstr = 'DBCC PAGE (Your_Database,1,' + CAST(@pagenum AS NVARCHAR) + ',3) WITH TABLERESULTS'

	INSERT INTO PageResults
	EXEC sp_executesql @sqlstr;

	SET @loopcount += 1;

	DELETE FROM #DBCCPages WHERE Page = @pagenum;
	
END


Because I needed to provide the client with a list of rows affected by the corruption, I had to dump all pages identified as repair_allow_data_loss. The script below queries DBCC Results to return a list of PageIDs for the irreparable pages. It runs DBCC PAGE…WITH TABLERESULTS for each PageID and writes the results to the PageResults table. Here is a sample of the output:

DBCCPAGEWithTableResults

You can see that the results contain a set of rows for each slot, or table row, contained on the page. I needed to take each set of those rows and pivot them into a single row. The script below does that. You will need to add a MIN(CASE statement for each row you want to pivot.

USE Your_Database;
/* Select data from PageResults to return the key value for each row contained on a corrupt page */

SELECT ParentObject,
     MIN(CASE Field WHEN 'col1' THEN VALUE END) AS col1,
     MIN(CASE Field WHEN 'col2' THEN VALUE END) AS col2,
     MIN(CASE Field WHEN 'col3' THEN VALUE END) AS col3,
     MIN(CASE Field WHEN 'col4' THEN VALUE END) AS col4,
     MIN(CASE Field WHEN 'col5' THEN VALUE END) AS col5
INTO Your_Database..PageResults
   FROM #PageResults
   GROUP BY ParentObject
   ORDER BY col1, col2, col3, col4, col5; 

I hope this post provides more insight into the tools and methods available for analyzing corruption and determining its extent.