Posts Tagged ‘PowerShell’

Updating TLS in PowerShell to Allow Set-PSRepository to Run

March 19, 2022 Leave a comment

I was recently working on a client server and need to install the Az PowerShell module. I opened and administrator window and typed

Install-Module Az

and received this error:

WARNING: Unable to find module repositories.

Searching the error, I was told to run

Register-PSRepository -Default

The command completed without an error, but I got the same error when trying to install the Az module.

Some additional digging led me to check the TLS version PowerShell was running. It turned out it was using TLS 1.0. Running this command updated TLS to 1.2:

[Net.ServicePointManager]::SecurityProtocol = [Net.SecurityProtocolType]::Tls12

and allowed the Register-Repository command to execute successfully.

Thanks for reading and I hope this helps.

Categories: Azure, PowerShell Tags: , ,

Azure SQL Managed Instance – Prerequisites

October 24, 2018 2 comments


NOTE: This post contains steps for creating Azure resources.  You must have access to an Azure subscription to complete these steps.  IMPORTANT: According to this post from Microsoft, Managed Instance creation is currently supported for Enterprise Agreement, Pay-As-You-Go, and Cloud Service Provider subscriptions.  I will update this post when additional subscription types are added.

Before creating an Azure SQL Managed Instance, a number of prerequisite resources must be provisioned.  These are:

  • An Azure Virtual Network
  • A dedicated subnet for Managed Instances
  • A route table

The Azure Virtual Network provides isolation of the Managed Instance from other tenants in the Azure cloud.  This VNet allows connectivity to your on-premises environment through an Azure Express Route or site-to-site VPN gateway.  Finally, the SQL endpoint for the Managed Instance is only exposed through a private IP, allowing safe connections from a private Azure or hybrid network.

A dedicated subnet is required within the VNet to contain your Managed Instances.  You will not be able to create a Managed Instance in a subnet that contains other resources.  Once you create a Managed Instance in a subnet, you will not be able to create other resources in it.  For ease of administration, it is best practice to create all of your Managed Instances in the same subnet, so it should be sized according to your requirements.

The Managed Instance subnet requires a route table assigned to it.  The route table must contain an address prefix of with Next Hop Internet.

The steps to create these resources can be found here.  Alternatively, the following PowerShell script contains the cmdlets to create these resources.  It creates a second subnet in the VNet and an Azure virtual machine in that subnet.  This allows connection to the Managed Instance in the event you do not have access to a site-to-site VPN gateway or Azure Express Route.  You can also download the code here.

<#Generates a dialog box to log into your Azure subscription#>

<#Local variables for required Managed Instance resources#>
$rgname = "yourmirg";
$vnet = "yourmivn";
$subnet = "default";
$vmsubnet = "yournvstsn";
$rtable = "yournvstrt";
$server = "yournvstsrv";
$location = "northcentralus";

<#If your resource group already exists, uncomment this line#>
#Remove-AzureRmResourceGroup -Name $rgname -Force;

<#If you need to create a resource group, uncomment this line#>
New-AzureRmResourceGroup -Name $rgname -Location $location;

<#Creates VNet with an IP range of>
$virtualNetwork = New-AzureRmVirtualNetwork `
-ResourceGroupName $rgname `
-Location $location `
-Name $vnet `

<#Creates a subnet with an IP range of
Used for Managed Instance#>
$subnetConfig = Add-AzureRmVirtualNetworkSubnetConfig `
-Name $subnet `
-AddressPrefix `
-VirtualNetwork $virtualNetwork;

<#Creates a subnet with an IP range of
Used for VM#>
$subnetVmConfig = Add-AzureRmVirtualNetworkSubnetConfig `
-Name $vmsubnet `
-AddressPrefix `
-VirtualNetwork $virtualNetwork;

<#Writes VNet information to the $VirtualNetwork variable#>
$virtualNetwork | Set-AzureRmVirtualNetwork;

<#The next two commands create a route table and write the route table information to variable $RouteTable#>
$Route = New-AzureRmRouteConfig -Name $rtable -AddressPrefix -NextHopType Internet;
New-AzureRmRouteTable -Name $rtable -ResourceGroupName $rgname -Location $location -Route $Route;

$RouteTable = Get-AzureRmRouteTable -Name $rtable -ResourceGroupName $rgname;

<#Configures the route table in the drfault subnet#>
Set-AzureRmVirtualNetworkSubnetConfig `
-VirtualNetwork $virtualNetwork `
-Name $subnet `
-AddressPrefix `
-RouteTable $RouteTable | Set-AzureRmVirtualNetwork;

$vnetlong = Get-AzureRmVirtualNetwork -Name $vnet -ResourceGroupName $rgname;

$subnetConfig = Get-AzureRmVirtualNetworkSubnetConfig -VirtualNetwork $vnetlong;


<#Creates an Azure VM in the yournvstsn subnet, opening ports 80 and 3389#>

New-AzureRmVm `
-ResourceGroupName $rgname `
-Name $server `
-Location $location `
-VirtualNetworkName $vnet `
-SubnetName $vmsubnet `
-SecurityGroupName &quot;$server-nsg&quot; `
-PublicIpAddressName &quot;$server-ip&quot; `
-OpenPorts 80,3389;

<#Once the VM is provisioned, RDP to it and download and install SQL Server Management Studio>


PowerShell Function to Automate Availability Group Failover

November 18, 2017 1 comment

I've been working with Availability Groups (AG) since their release in SQL Server 2012 and have always wanted to leverage PowerShell to administer them.  Recently I received a request to develop an automated process for failing Availability Groups over gracefully prior to server patching.  Believe it or not, but a hard shutdown of the primary replica is NOT the best way to force AG failover.

The function takes a replica name as input and queries system tables for Availability Groups running as secondary that are online, healthy, and synchronous.  For each AG found, the function generates an ALTER AVAILABILITY GROUP statement.  If the -noexec parm is set to 0, the command will be executed.  If -noexec is set to 1, the command will be written out to a file.

When writing the function, I started out trying to use the native PowerShell Availability Group cmdlets.  After several false starts, I found it easier to develop the T-SQL code in Management Studio and use Invoke-Sqlcmd to execute the code.  The code is available below.  I hope you can put it to use.